Basic Writing Style for of References
This page describes the basic writing style for references in the ISIJ Journals.
Please refer to it when preparing your manuscript.
In addition, we have prepared a reference checklist for the author's proofreading. This checklist can also be used when preparing the manuscript.
- Basic writing style for journal references
- Reference notation proofreading checklist (for the authors)
Basic writing style for journal references
※Literature must be written in English.
1. Journal articles
(1) Basic format
- Author name: Provide initials for first and middle names. List all authors; the same applies to the other references listed below.
- Use a colon (:) to separate the author name and journal name; the same applies to the other references listed below.
- Journal name: Write the journal names with two or more words in italics using the abbreviation method based on ISO 4 (do not abbreviate if there is only one word). Please refer to the journal abbreviation example list.
- Volume number: Use the bold format.
- Page number: Write only the first page number ([article number] if the page number is not a volume serial or issue serial page number).
- Language notation: Write only if the reference is not in English (the same applies to the other references listed below).
- DOI: Write the reference URL of the DOI beginning with https:// (a period at the end is not necessary).
|Ex.1||Citing an article from our Institute||N. Masuko : Tetsu-to-Hagané, 77 (1991), 871 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2355 /tetsutohagane1955.77.7_871|
|A. Laasraoui and J. J. Jonas: ISIJ Int., 31 (1991), 95. https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.31.95|
|S. Suzuki and K. Suzuki: CAMP-ISIJ, 5 (1992), 1433 (in Japanese).|
|S. Yamasaki, M. Mitsuhara and H. Nakashima: Bull. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 24 (2019), 498 (in Japanese).|
|Ex.2||Citing an article whose language is other than English||L.M. Lenev and I.A. Novokhatskii: Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Met., 3 (1966), 73 (in Russian).|
|E. Mazanek and M. Wyderko: Stahl Eisen, 89 (1969), 863 (in German).|
|Y. Qi, D. Yan, J. Gao, J. Zhang and M. Li: Iron Steel, 46 (2011), No.3, 6 (in Chinese).|
|Ex.3||Citing an article when only the page number is not provided but the article number (same appearance)||K. Konstantinou, F.C. Mocanu, J. Akola and S.R. Elliott: Acta Mater., 223 (2022), 117468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2021.117468|
(2) Rare formats （The number of listed items may increase depending on the journal's specifications.）
- Issue number： This is only required when the page number is for each issue, not when it is a volume serial. Additionally, for supplements, write “Suppl.”
- Media display： This is required when the reference to be cited is not on a paper-based medium and does not have a DOI or URL. Write the name of the medium, for example, CD-ROM.
- URL： If the reference does not have a DOI but has a URL that can identify bibliographic information, include the access date because it is often not a permanent identifier.
|Ex.4||Citing an article with the issue number||C.H. Lin, S. Machida and H. Yoshinari: J. Soc. Nav. Archit. Jpn., 1993(1993), No.174, 523 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2534/jjasnaoe1968.1993.174_523|
|Ex.5||Citing an article with display on non-paper media||S. Suzuki and K. Suzuki: CAMP-ISIJ, 21(2008), 111, CD-ROM (in Japanese).|
|Ex.6||Citing an article with no DOI, but identifiable by URL||[If there is a link to the bibliographic display]
J.S. Kirkaldy: Scand. J. Metall., 20 (1991), 50. http://pascal-francis.inist.fr/vibad/index.php?action=getRecord Detail&idt=19831825, (accessed 2022-06-14).
|[If there is only a PDF link]
P. McMillan: Am. Mineral., 69 (1984), 622. http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM69/AM69_622.pdf, (accessed 2023-03-20).
2. Books (includes international conference proceedings in addition to books.)
(1) Basic format
- Book title: Unlike the case of journals, do not mention abbreviations. Roman type.
(In the case of a Japanese title with no official English title, describe Japanese title using Hepburn romanization (romaji) and English translation in parentheses should be included.)
- Accompanying information: Separate the information such as the volume number, revised version, or international conference abbreviations in the case of international conference proceedings by commas.
- Editor name: Write the name of the editor preceded by “ed. by”. For multiple editors, “et al.” may be used. If the editor and publisher were the same, then list only the publisher.
- Publisher location: Not required if it is unknown.
- Page number: Write only the first page number (if book serial page numbering is absent, list it for identifying the page).
- Language notation: Write only for non-English references.
- DOI or ISBN: Write the URL of the DOI starting with https://. List the ISBN of the book if the DOI is unavailable.
|Ex.1||Citing a book published by our Institute||J. Itami and K. Ushioda: Improvements in the Strength and Reliability of Steels, ISIJ, Tokyo, (1997), 98 (in Japanese).|
|[Handbook of Iron and Steel]
Y. Ogawa: Handbook of Iron and Steel, 5th ed., Vol.1, ISIJ, Tokyo, (2014), 249 (in Japanese). ISBN978-4930980809
|[Nishiyama Memorial Seminar Text]
S. Asai: 153rd and 154th Nishiyama Memorial Seminar, ISIJ, Tokyo, (1994), 89 (in Japanese).
|[International conference proceedings]
N. Kosaka and Y. Funakawa: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Steel Science 2014, ISSS 2014, ISIJ, Tokyo, (2014), 143.
|Ex.2||Citing a book with a Japanese title||J. Burke, trans. by K. Hirano and H. Hori: Kinzoku Sohentai Sokudoron Nyumon (The Kinetics of Phase Transformations in Metals), Kyoritsu Shuppan, Tokyo, (1972), 47 (in Japanese).|
|Ex.3||Citing a book with the page number||[When there are page numbers for each chapter instead of book serial page numbers]
K. Tsutsumi, J. Kubota, A. Hosokawa, S. Ueoka, I. Sumi, H. Nakano and A. Kuramoto: Proceedings of the 9th European Continuous Casting Conference, ECCC 2017, The Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials, Leoben, (2017), Chapter 3, 265.
|Ex.4||Citing a book with the editor's name
Citing a book with the DOI
|A.D. Rollet, U.F. Kocks, J.D. Embury, M.G. Stout and R.D. Doherty: Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Strength Metals and Alloys, Vol.1, ICSMA 8, ed. by P. O. Kettunen et al., Pergamon Press, New York, NY, (1989), 433. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-034804-9.50065-6|
|Ex.5||Citing a book with the ISBN||W.C. Leslie: The Physical Metallurgy of Steels, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, (1981), 621. ISBN978-0070377806|
(2) Rare formats
- When the name of the translator is known: Write “trans. by” followed by the translator's name after the original author's name (see Ex. 2 on the previous table).
- When the DOI, ISBN, or URL are not known and the reference is not published on a paper medium, list the type of medium, such as CD-ROM (refer to Ex. 6 listed below).
- When the page number is not known but the reference has an online version (e.g., proceedings), list the URL instead of the page number and include the access date (refer to Ex. 7 listed below).
- Databases and software used should not be cited in the references but should be mentioned in the paper. If they can be cited as references, it is recommended that the notations of Ex. 8 listed below should be used (database or software name, version, provider name, provider location, (year of publication)).
|Ex.6||Citing a book with display on non-paper media||K. Tsutsumi, J. Kubota, A. Hosokawa, S. Ueoka, I. Sumi, H. Nkano and A. Kuramoto: Proceedings of 9th European Continuous Casting Conference, ECCC 2017, The Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials, Leoben, (2017), 1032, CD-ROM.|
|Ex.7||Citing a book provided online (e.g., proceedings)||H. Harada and M. Tanaka: Proceedings of 5th International Congress on CO2 Reduction in Steel Industry, (2020). https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01334718, (accessed 2019-09-25).|
|Ex.8||Citing a database or software as a reference||TCS Steel and Fe-alloys Database, Ver.10.1, Thermo-Calc Software, Solna, Sweden, (2020).|
3. Academic theses
Master's theses are not accepted as references, but international master's theses can be accepted as references if they are open to the public, and their content can be confirmed by the general public.
|Ex.||Y. Kondo: Doctoral Thesis, Tokyo Institute of Technology, (1981), 17 (in Japanese).|
|K. Nakama: Ph.D. Thesis, Kyoto University, (2014), (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.14989/doctor.k18276|
|S. Sirakami: Ph.D. Thesis, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, (2017), (in Japanese). http://hdl.handle.net/10636/00001447, (accessed 2020-04-06).|
|G. Krauss: Sc.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (1961). http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/11317, (accessed 2020-12-07).|
<Basic format> ※Standards are written according to the following format.
|Ex.||JIS L 1902: 2008, Testing for antibacterial activity and efficacy on textile products (in Japanese).|
|ISO 14404-1: 2013, Calculation method of carbon dioxide emission intensity from iron and steel production -- Part 1: Steel plant with blast furnace.|
According to the Instructions to Authors, “URL citations that are judged to be continuous and of reliable public organizations/agencies are permitted only if documents are not officially published or are difficult to obtain. In such cases, provide the (title of the document), the (publication date), URL, (accessed date).”
|Ex.1||When the name of the author is known||T. Furuhara: President's Message, The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, https://www.isij.or.jp/about/index.html#message, (accessed 2023-06-02).|
|Ex.2||When the name of the author is unknown
When the website is in Japanese
|Life Cycle Thinking, The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, https://www.jisf.or.jp/business/lca/lct/index.html (in Japanese), (accessed 2022-05-15).|
|Ex.3||When the acquired citation is obtained from the download screen of the cited report list
（The name of the report on the download screen is enclosed in “ ", after the website provider.）
|White Paper, Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, “Annual Report on the Environment, the Sound Material-Cycle Society and Biodiversity in Japan 2018”, (June 5, 2018), https://www.env.go.jp/en/wpaper/index.html, (accessed 2019-07-22).|
|Ex.4||When the URL of the report itself is the source
（Use the book writing style instead of the basic website format.）
|GHG Protocol Team and Steering Committee: Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard, World Resources Institute and WBCSD, (2011), https://ghgprotocol.org/sites/default/files/standards/Corporate-Value-Chain-Accounting-Reporing-Standard_041613_2.pdf, (accessed 2022-04-15).|
We introduce other various and easily mistaken notation examples.
Note that “manuscript in preparation,” “submitted,” “to be published,” “unpublished research,” “private communication,” and similar notations are not permitted. Mention it in the text if you wish to cite it.
|Ex.1||SAE Technical Papers
|K.Sato, Y.Tokita, M.Ono and A.Yoshitake: SAE Tech. Pap., (2003), 2003-01-0606. https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-0606.|
|Ex.2||NIMS Creep Data Sheet
|NIMS Creep Data Sheet No.48A, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, (2012).|
|Ex.3||Former National Bureau of Standards publications
|D.J. Bacon and P.P. Groves: Fundamentals of Aspects of Dislocation Theory, NBS Special Publication 317, Vol.1, ed. by J.A. Simmons, R. deWitt and R. Bullough, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, (1969), 35.|
|M.C. Morris, H.F. McMurdie, E.H. Evans, B.Paretzkin, H.S. Parker, N.C. Panagiotopoulos and C.R. Hubbard: Standard X-ray Diffraction Powder Patterns, NBS Monograph 25, Section 18, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, (1981), 61.|
|Ex.4||NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables
|M.W. Chase: NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 4th ed., American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, (1998), 154.|
*Patent citations are not recommended
|G.A. Roberts, J.C. Hamanaker, Jr., and L. Pa: Alloy Steels, US Patent, US3117863, (1964).|
|Ex.6||Accepted papers (when published without volume or issue number)||[When DOI is available]
K. Nishio, R. Matsumoto, H. Utsunomiya, K. Hayashi, Y. Hidaka and M. Sugiyama: Tetsu-to-Hagané, (2023), (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2355/tetsutohagane.TETSU-2023-012
[When DOI is unavailable]
K. Nishio, R. Matsumoto, H. Utsunomiya, K. Hayashi, Y. Hidaka and M. Sugiyama: Tetsu-to-Hagané, (2023), (in Japanese), in press.
Reference notation proofreading checklist (for the authors)
This is a reference notation checklist for proofreading.
Please refer to “Basic writing style for journal references” for details.
|Category||Confirmation items for proofs||Check|
|Are all reference numbers correctly cited (listed) in the main text?|
|When citing the author names in the main text, are they written in the same English notations as in the *references?
*In the case of two authors, cite the last names of both authors, for example, “Ono and Kimura”.
In the case of three and more authors, cite the last name of the first author, followed by et al., for example, “Ono et al.”
|Are the reference notations (author, journal name/book name, volume number, year of publication, page number, etc.) correct?|
|Journal articles||Author name: journal name, volume number (year of publication), [issue number], first page number (language notation). DOI or URL with access date..|
|[Author name] Initials of first and middle names. All author names must be listed.|
|[Journal name] Abbreviation notation based on ISO 4, italics (no abbreviation is needed if there is only one word).|
|[Volume number] In bold font.|
|[Issue number] Should be listed only if the volume serial page number is not known. Additionally, supplements should be listed as “Suppl.”|
|[Page number or paper number] Only the first page number should be listed.|
|[Language notation] Should be listed at the end in the case of a non-English reference.|
|[DOI] DOI should be added beginning with https://.|
|[DOI] Should be linked with the correct reference.|
|[URL] Access dates should be listed for links other than DOI.|
|Author name: book title, accompanying information, [editor name], publisher, [publisher location], (year of publication), page number, (language notation). DOI or ISBN|
|[Book name] Unlike journals, no abbreviation should be used.|
|[Book name] In the case of a Japanese title with no official English title, describe Japanese title using Hepburn romanization (romaji) and English translation in parentheses should be included.|
|[Information accompanying book: Revision version, volume number, international conference abbreviation, etc.] Should be listed after the book title.|
|[Editor name] Should be written after the book title and accompanying information when listing.|
|[Publisher name] The name of the publisher should be listed.|
|[Publisher location] Not required if it is unknown.|
|[Page number] Only the first page number should be listed.|
|[Language notation] Should be listed at the end in the case of a non-English reference.|
|[DOI or ISBN] DOI or ISBN should be listed. URL with access date can also be used.|
|Academic theses||Author name: type of thesis, name of university, (year of degree conferment), page number, (language notation). [DOI or URL, (access date)]|
|Standards||Standard number: year of enactment, title of standard (language notation).|
|Websites||[Author name]: website title, website provider, [“name of report”], [(Report publication date)], acquired URL (language notation), (access date).|
|Others||Refer to “Basic writing style for journal references”|